Tuesday, January 21, 2020
One of ArtÃ¢â¬â¢s Messages When I first walked into the Krannert Art Museum, I had no idea where to begin seeing that this was my first visit to the museum. So I asked a man who worked there to point me in the general direction of the exhibit known as Ã¢â¬Å"Eight Artists Address Brown v. Board of Education.Ã¢â¬ The man gave me directions, and showed me into the section for the exhibit. I walked into two small rooms, which I thought was a little small for the work of eight artists. Despite the size, I had no idea where to start. So I took a quick look around the exhibit, which was empty except for the security guard who, upon my arrival, jumped up from his seat. Throughout my time at the museum, this guard was constantly checking me, like a hawk waiting for its prey to make a move before coming in for the kill, as if I were going to do anything other than look at the exhibits. His evil gaze was a little unnerving, however, I persisted in my work. In order to decide where to start, I spun around in a circle, coming to a stop at Pamel Vander ZwanÃ¢â¬â¢s and Carrie Mae WeemsÃ¢â¬â¢ work on Plessy v. Ferguson. This was a series of five photographs in black and white featuring Zwan and Weems, one black and the other white, fighting over a chair in the middle of a checkered black and white room. It did not matter which picture started the series, because the two on the ends were the same picture. If going in a linear order, depending on where you started, the second and fourth pictures showed the two women struggling for the chair with the white women having the upper-hand, and the black women trying to take the chair away. Which ever direction you took, the pictures always ended the same way, with each women back where they started. It was at this point that I found a little book that describes each exhibit, which helped me to understand the pictures. Not knowing the background behind Plessy v. Ferguson, the struggle for the seat didnÃ¢â¬â¢t make much sense. The history is written saying that Homer Plessy was a black man who sat in the Ã¢â¬Å"white man onlyÃ¢â¬ car of a train, quite a rebellious feat for his time.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Company Objectives The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s objective is to enable business and operational success through integrated world class solutions and development by utilizing the organizational restructure of the Engineering and R&D departments. Having a centralized organization with a decentralized engineering department makes meeting the company objective quite difficult. Also, if the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s objective does not align with the department specific objectives Campbell Soup is setting their selves up for failure. Sales and Marketing are concerned with increasing market share and gaining profit, while the Plants are worried about operational performance, and Engineering is focused on individual parts of the system. In order to have a successful company objective each department must be working towards the same goal. For example, if the plants are measured based on operating results and performance, when launching a new product line we have to be flexible and put in different performance metrics and set a glide path with a specific timeline. Competing on consistent quality, time/availability (want to be the first) (want to always have it on the shelves), [ARE THEY COMPETING ON PRICE? Having a reasonable price, canÃ¢â¬â¢t be an expensive product but people are willing to pay a premium price?] Specific Problem Defined Currently after quite a few years of product development Plastigon is still in the process improvement stage and is not a finished program. The project team is facing difficulties involving people, processes, data, and systems. There is not a clear line of responsibility and ownership for people at the individual and group level. The development team for the Plastigon line was decentralized over the P3 and has suffered a high turnover rate of its developers. If engineers were leaving the company or project because of the amount of travel required the correct engineers were not selected for the project, or the scope of the project was not clearly defined. The knowledge that the individuals on the project possess is one of the most valuable resources, especially during the product development phase. Project management at Campbell is not a clear, identified, well-connected end to end standard process. The data collected and analyzed throughout the program could not be trusted because there were no steps in place to ensure reliability. For example, testing the production line with water instead ofÃ the actual product gives the firm inaccurate results. There are large discrepancies in the viscosity of soup and water, and the issues you run into will be completely different. If the regulations and procedures are put in place so that test products are not shipped to customers by mistake, test products can be labeled as such. A reevaluation of what regulations are necessary needs to take place for the firm to be able to grow. It didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem as though costs were allocated in standard process. The systems that are put in place need to enable people, processes and data to work for the organization. If Campbell had the right tools and methods in place to support the work that occurs in the organization, the Plastigon line would have been up and running. They had this problem because they are not familiar with how to launching a completely brand new product line. This is outside of their comfort zone and therefore it has effectively stalled the product line due to lack of interest, conflicting interests, decentralized teams, and engineering issues. Individuals were not working cross-functionally but instead they focused heavily on their specific issues instead of the overarching strategic goal. There were several communication issues between different departments because there was not a shared vision. Problems Ã¢â¬â Not having meetings. Plants not being involved. There isnÃ¢â¬â¢t any real data analysis in this case. We analyzed the data to prove significance in the other sections. 2. What should Elsner do about Plastigon? Alternative Strategies Elsner has a few options available to him Continue the current development plan that his predecessors have started Scrap Plastigon and move towards a container that imitates proven microwaveable products Centralize the current development plan and roll out the Plastigon line. 2. Each of these options has their proÃ¢â¬â¢s and conÃ¢â¬â¢s. Continuing current development as planned has proven to be costly and slow, but is the most obvious route. Scrapping Plastigon will most likely guarantee a successful microwaveable container, but will prove to be unpopular due to the substantial investment in Plastigon. Centralizing theÃ development is the Ã¢â¬Å"middle optionÃ¢â¬ allowing Elsner to have a more focused approach on the existing plan. This could cause more issues within Campbell because of their decentralized development teams though. Recommendation Campbell has already committed a large amount of human and financial capital, $10M, into developing the Plastigon production line. They want a return on their investment. Although they have lost the first mover advantage to other companies that have entered with shelf-stable microwavable products they still have a superior product and they can steal market share from them. Since they had a radical innovation if they came to market with a less than perfect product they would have been allowed to make changes in the future to improve on their initial product. Their strong quality reputation would not have been ruined. They need to have a batch process for this production line. The beginning of the process will be a flow shop where are the standard processes are performed but then it will be a job shop towards the end of the process where we have the cooker and incubator. In order to compete with other firms they will need to have consistent quality, and finished good inventory. The beginning of the process is the hardest because that is when toy have to program knowledge into the automated machinery but then your costs will go down because you have a low waged and narrow skilled workforce. Launch DRG now and work on Plastigon, do not fund any other programs. Right not the Plastigon margins are horrible, total cost per unit = $1.49-1.59 selling at whole price for $.85, they are not making any money. Need to reevaluate costs. 3. What can the firm learn from its experience with Plastigon? 1. CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s current development process is outdated and unwieldy 2. CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s competitors have more efficient product development and rollout processes 3. CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s business structure (engineering, product roll out, manager incentives) is not geared towards developing the next generation of their products (disruptive technologies) 4. If Campbell is going to be competitive in future product lines it will need to restructure its companyÃ¢â¬â¢s development process. 5. Campbell is vulnerable to new technologies taking market share away from it. Big Problem- Beyond the case (long-term) The Palastigon program can turn out to be beneficial to the Campbell Soup Company if they take the approach of levering the problems they were faced with during this period and turning them into company solutions, guidelines and safety nets. The project management process needs to be reevaluated and set process steps need to be put into place. Non-value added activities, like developing product lines without first piloting the process. They need to have process owners or strategic project managers that are responsible for project results and integration between the cross-functional team. Process innovation improvement is a key takeaway. Revisit the current state process and identify areas for development. After this new product development initiatives will be easier to launch Ã¢â¬â Management and Engineering interface Problems can lead to streamlining an effective process for the future and result in potential solutions. Project management at the individual and group level. Take the key learnings from this specific project and launch corporate wide initiatives and procedures, for effective and efficient project management.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Lexicography is the process of writing, editing, and/or compiling a dictionary.Ã An author or editor of a dictionary is called a lexicographer. The processes involved in the compilation and implementation of digital dictionaries (such as Merriam-Webster Online)Ã is known asÃ e-lexicography. The fundamental difference between lexicography and linguistics, says Sven Tarp, is that they have two completely different subject fields: The subject field of linguistics is language, whereas the subject field of lexicography is dictionaries and lexicographic works in general (Beyond Lexicography inÃ Lexicography at a Crossroads, 2009).In 1971, historical linguist and lexicographer Ladislav Zgusta published the first major international handbook on lexicography, Manual of Lexicography, which remains the standard text in the field. Etymology: From the Greek, word write Pronunciation: LEK-si-KOG-ra-fee Beginnings of English Lexicography The beginnings of English lexicography go back to the Old English period . . .. The language of the Roman Church was Latin; its priests and monks needed to be competent in Latin in order to conduct services and to read the Bible . . .. As English monks studied these Latin manuscripts, they would sometimes write the English translation above (or below) a Latin word in the text, to help their own learning, and as a guide to subsequent readers. These one-word translations, written between the lines of a manuscript, are called interlinear glosses; they are seen as the beginnings of (bilingual) lexicography. (Howard Jackson, Lexicography: An Introduction. Routledge, 2002) Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) and English Lexicography I am not yet so lost in lexicography, as to forget that words are the daughters of earth and that things are the sons of heaven.(Samuel Johnson)[Samuel] Johnson was not only innovative in his use of 114,000 citations to prove his definitions and the usage of words and connotations. He also noted the author who had first used a word or collocation and who had last used an obsolete word. He also took the liberty of adding prescriptive commentaries whenever there was doubt about usage.(Piet Van van Sterkenburg, A Practical Guide to Lexicography. John Benjamins, 2003) English Lexicography in the 20th Century In the English language area, the lexical orientation has long remained historical. The first edition of the Concise Oxford Dictionary, by H.W. and F.G. Fowler, dates from 1911 and leans heavily on [James] Murrays New English Dictionary on Historical Principles [later renamed the Oxford English Dictionary]. It was also due to the fact that the first supplement to the OED was published in 1933 and the second was in preparation from 1950 onwards, to be published in four thick volumes under the general editorship of Robert Burchfield. Incidentally, that supplement did include swear words, sexual terms, colloquial speech etc.Innovations in the English lexicography were to be seen in the dictionaries by Longman and Collins, based on contemporary corpora of electronic texts and anchored entirely in a database structure. . . .In 1988, the first edition of the OED was made available on CD-ROM and the second edition in 1992.(Piet van Sterkenburg, The Dictionary: Definition and History. A Prac tical Guide to Lexicography, edited by Piet Van Sterkenburg. John Benjamins, 2003) Crowdsourcing and Contemporary Lexicography Websites such as those for Urban Dictionary and Wiktionary . . . offer what is known as bottom-up lexicography, placing ordinary speakers and writers at the core of the ways in which the dictionaries in question are to be made. The definition of dictionary-making which such sites present can be particularly telling. Lexicography: The art of making a dictionary. Anyone who adds to urbandictionary.com [sic] is a lexicographer, a post on Urban Dictionary proclaims. (Lynda Mugglestone, Dictionaries: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2011)A small thing in the larger world perhaps but Collins, the dictionary publisher, may have set a revolution going. If so its because they just announced the first instance of a dictionary allowing input not only from the usual suspects--staff lexicographers--but from the public, or to use the pertinent language: the crowd.Crowdsourcing . . . is first recorded in 2004. The philosophy of the more the merrier. And more creative. Now that ta sk could include lexicography. . . .For the last couple of months, Collins has thrown open their files to all-comers. Suggest a word that qualifies for their dictionary and wins a prize! Examples include Twittersphere, sexting, cyberstalking and captcha. . . .Such shout-outs are the antithesis of traditional lexicography. . . . If the dictionary-maker is a humble archivist while the lexicon is being created, they become a deity--or at least a cut-rate Moses--once it appears and becomes a source of supposedly trustworthy information. . . .Letting in the street will end no worlds but will it improve the quality of dictionaries? Form as ever faces off content. The form can be democratic as all hell, but in lexicon-land, surely the content is what matters. . . .Reference should be online. The opportunities for presentation, for breadth of information and for sophisticated searches that would be impossible in a print dictionary are too good to miss. But if reference is to remain useful t hen it cannot become amateur hour. (Jonathon Green, Dictionaries Are Not Democratic. The Observer, September 13, 2012) The Lighter Side of Lexicography LEXICOGRAPHER, n. A pestilent fellow who, under the pretense of recording some particular stage in the development of a language, does what he can to arrest its growth, stiffen its flexibility and mechanize its methods. (Ambrose Bierce, The Devils Dictionary, 1911)
Friday, December 27, 2019
The question of whether the Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association (PIAA) should separate public and private schools into their own divisions has been a topic of discussion for years. As a product of 14 years of Catholic education, I was fortunate enough to be able to participate in athletics during my high school career. Many of the teams that we played were public school teams from small communities where athletics were almost more important than an education. Unfortunately, I have witnessed firsthand the animosity that has surfaced between public and private schools. The PIAA is the governing body of high school sports in the state of Pennsylvania. The PIAA was founded in 1913 and initially included only public schools as members. Parochial and private schools were admitted to the PIAA in the late 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s. In 1997, the PA Charter School Act was passed which allowed for the creation of charter schools. The emergence of charter schools, particularly in the Philadelphia area, created even greater animosity between private and public schools. The Philadelphia schools, many of which are charter schools, were not members of the PIAA until 2003. Their athletic success at the state championship level has raised many concerns from the public sector. The primary problem that the PIAA faces today is the dominance of private schools winning the majority of state titles in all sports. Public schools have geographic boundaries that determine the school a student mustShow MoreRelatedPublic Education For Public Schools1477 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesreform with this in mind (Cubberly, 1922; Sobe, 2011). However, as governors and state legislatures look for ways to trim budgets, school districts from coast to coast are challenged to find ways to cut costs (Howley, Johnson, Petrie, 2011). Pennsylvania is among the states currently looking at educational reforms during these tumultuous economic times, just as many school administrators face large budget deficits each year, threatening the notion of a free, equal public education for all. AsRead MorePublic School versus Home School Essay1360 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesactivities, but athletics get the most attention according to the Home School Legal Defense Fund (Brockett, 1995). That is because competitive sports are the one activity families can not easily duplicate as their children reach high school age. The Massachusetts Interscholastic Athletic Association, after three state judges ruled against home schoolers being barred from playing on public high school teams, has initiated a one year open door trial program (Brockett, 1995). A Pennsylvania federal courtRead MoreThe Inequality Of Female And Male Sports3247 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesexcluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving Federal financial assistanceÃ¢â¬ (Anderson). These thirty seven words, known as Title IX, have transformed the athletic community for both males and females over the past forty two years. Many wonder why there is still so much talk about the inequalities of female and male sports even after forty two years of the enactment of Title IX. Violations of this law stillRead Morejesse owen Essay3441 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesteacher in the North failed to understand his southern drawl and put his name down as Jesse. Too modest to correct his teacher, Owens kept the name. Athletic Success as a Teenager Owens enrolled in Clevelands Fairmount Junior High School around 1927 and quickly attracted the attention of a mentor who would prove crucial in his future athletic success. Charles Riley worked at the school as a physical education teacher and track-and-field coach and immediately realized that Owens was a naturally
Thursday, December 19, 2019
REFUTATION OF ARGUMENT AGAINST GAY MARRIAGE In a remarkable article that appeared in the Washington Post, William J. Bennett argued that recognizing same-sex marriage would be detrimental to the concept of marriage and to the nation. The only thing more remarkable than the logical fallacies relied upon in the article was the fact that the author was the former Chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities and Secretary of Education in the Reagan administration and Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy in the George H. W. Bush administration. Bennett argues, rhetorically, that recognizing gay marriage would open the door to every other possible marriage, such as between two brothers who desire to marry and in situations where groups of individuals desire polygamous marriages. According to Bennett, if the basis of recognizing gay marriage is the notion of not denying a persons sexuality, all of those types of relationships are also entitled to legal recognition . Of course, that is a flawed argument because it presumes that proponents of gay marriage oppose any restriction on who may marry based on the single criteria of sexuality. In fact, the exact same argument was once used by opponents of interracial marriage. Proponents of gay marriage do not support incest, or polygamy, or bestiality; nor do they suggest that sexual desire is the only purpose of marriage or a justification for all marital choices. Bennett also suggests that gay marriageShow MoreRelatedLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pagesstructure of arguments. David M. Adams, California State Polytechnic University These examples work quite well. Their diversity, literacy, ethnic sensitivity, and relevancy should attract readers. Stanley Baronett. Jr., University of Nevada Las Vegas Far too many authors of contemporary texts in informal logic Ã¢â¬â keeping an eye on the sorts of arguments found in books on formal logic Ã¢â¬â forget, or underplay, how much of our daily reasoning is concerned not with arguments leading to truth-valued Read MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 Pagesthe International Systems of Law in the Twentieth Century Ã¢â¬ ¢ Jean H. Quataert 116 5 The Impact of the Two World Wars in a Century of Violence Ã¢â¬ ¢ John H. Morrow Jr. 161 6 Locating the United States in Twentieth-Century World History Ã¢â¬ ¢ Carl J. Guarneri 213 7 The Technopolitics of Cold War: Toward a Transregional Perspective Ã¢â¬ ¢ Gabrielle Hecht and Paul N. Edwards 271 8 A Century of Environmental Transitions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Richard P. Tucker 315 About the Contributors Ã¢â¬ ¢ 343 _
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Black Panthers Essay, Research Paper Bobby Seale Bobby Seale was one of the co-founders of the Black Panther Party. He was born on October 22, 1939 in Dallas Texas. By the clip Bobby was ten his household moved to Oakland, California where he would hold a unsmooth childhood. Seale s household was really hapless so this merely added to his dire childhood. Bobby finally dropped out of high school and at 18 he was indicted into the Air Force. He was instantly sent to Amarillo, Texas to have preparation as an aircraft sheet-metal machinist. He shortly graduated from the Technical School Class of Air Force preparation with awards. After that, he was moved to Rapid City, South Dakota at Ellsworth Air Force Base. Bobby served here for three and a half old ages and left with the rank of corporal. After he left the Air Force he enrolled at Merrit College in Oakland where he intended to analyze technology. Bobby first became interested in 1962 when he foremost heard Malcolm-X speak. During his registration at the University, he joined the African-american Association ( AAA ) which was an organisation formed by immature African-Americans in Oakland to seek to face the jobs faced by the black community. This was an organisation that tried to face the job faced by the black community. Seale got interested really rapidly and was inspired by such people as Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. du Bois. Another member of the AAA named Huey Newton had really similar beliefs as Bobby. Soon Bobby became one of the many black militants who broke off from the traditional non-violent protests to prophesy a philosophy of hawkish black authorization. Bobby and Huey became really close friends and in 1966 formed the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. Bobby Seale is still alive today and is no longer involved in violent protests. He is running his ain web site that tells of his escapades and why he did everything he did in his earlier old ages. Huey Newton Huey Percy Newton was the other major co-founder of the Black Panther Party. Huey was born on February 17, 1942, in New Orleans, Louisiana. He was the youngest of Armelia and Walter Newton # 8217 ; s seven kids. When he was three old ages old he moved to Oakland, California. Huey and his household fled to the difficult nucleus side of Oakland because his male parent was looking for good work that was out of the Louisiana Bayou. While Huey was populating and turning up in East Oakland, he tried traveling to Law school, which didn # 8217 ; t work out for him. So he ended up at Merritt College where he would shortly run into Bobby Seale at an ( AAA ) Alcohols Anonymous Association meeting. Huey pressed his vie tungsten on Bobby continuously and shortly shaped Bobby to go what he would. Bobby and Huey became best friends and would from the Black Panther Party. Newton started making drugs and was speedy to go an nut. Throughout his old ages in the party everything started acquiring worse and traveling downhill. NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s jobs continued. He faced charges on cocaine ownership. Oakland research workers knew of NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s dependence to cocaine and subsequently cleft. Polices say he went into this tough West Oakland vicinity in his girlfriendÃ¢â¬â¢s auto. Neighbors told constabularies they heard three shootings. An officer was one minute off, but it was excessively late. Newton was shed blooding from three big gunshot lesions. He used to enroll for the Black Panthers in this vicinity 20 old ages ago, subsequently he came back and was killed. Black Jaguars Now When Katherine Ann Power surrendered, after about 20 five old ages underground, a coevals of 1960ss militants watched in sympathetic captivation. But some watched from behind bars. The Afro-american groups of the 1960ss, inspired by the Black Panthers, were motivated by the same high lesson. The difference is that many have spent the dominant decennaries non underground, non on probation, but in prison. In New York State there are at least eight former Black Panthers still in gaol, some of them since the early 1970s, for the same kind of politically-motivated Acts of the Apostless for which Power was hunted. They are among 25 to thirty Jaguars captive countrywide. Some were members of the original # 8220 ; Panther 21, # 8221 ; marks of constabulary entrapment. Some were with the Black Liberation Army, formed after the Panthers were decimated by the FBI # 8217 ; s covert anti-Black leading plan ( COINTELPRO ) . Some, like California # 8217 ; s Elmer # 8220 ; Geronimo # 8221 ; Pr att or New York # 8217 ; s Dhoruba Bin Wahad, were framed ; others were convicted on corrupt grounds ; all were sentenced far excessively harshly. Robert # 8220 ; Seth # 8221 ; Hayes has been in gaol the longest, since 1971. Teddy # 8220 ; Jah # 8221 ; Heath has been in gaol since 1973 for a snatch in which no 1 was injured. Herman Bell, Albert # 8220 ; Nuh # 8221 ; Washington and Anthony Bottoms ( the # 8220 ; New York Three # 8221 ; ) are still in prison even though a federal justice late ruled that testimony convicting them of killing a police officer was perjured. Abdul Majid and Bashir Hameed, convicted of killing a police officer in 1981 after two mistrials, are now appealling their 3rd test in which the prosecution used 80 per centum of its challenges to except Black jurymans. Most of these work forces, who have already been in prison for decennaries, will non be eligible for word until long after Katherine Ann Power has returned to freedom.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Looking Deeper into Schizophrenia Essay Schizophrenia is a never-ending, relentless and immobilizing or rendering the brain inoperative (National.., 2007). Approximately one percent of individuals living in the United States are affected by Schizophrenia (National.., 2007). Individuals who are diagnosed to have schizophrenia are typically fearful, withdrawn, as well as, agitated (National.., 2007). Such behaviors may be brought about by the fact that individuals suffering schizophrenia experience the following: 1) hear voices but other people do not; 2) belief that other people are reading their minds; 3) certainty that other individuals are controlling their mind; or 4) extremely feel that somebody wanted to hurt them (National.., 2007). The aforementioned are also the some of the reasons why: 1) if you hear them out closely, nothing they say seem to make sense; 2) they can sit for hours without moving or talking; or 3) appear alright that other people will only notice that there is something wrong when they begin to arti culate their thoughts (National.., 2007). The aforesaid facts confirm that countless individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia go through excruciating experiences including troubles in keeping their jobs, as well as, and especially, taking care of themselves (National.., 2007). This then affects not only the patients themselves, but their families and the society as well (National.., 2007).Meanwhile, history has it that Schizophrenia first emerged in 2000 BC (Wikipedia,2007). In 1893, Schizophrenia has been acknowledged by Kraepelin as mental disorder (Wikipedia, 2007).Ã The aforementioned disorder got its name from Eugene Blueler who strongly believes that there is an inadequacy of interface between perception and mental processes, thus he coined two Greek words which meant Ã¢â¬Å"splitÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"mindÃ¢â¬ or shattered mind (Wikipedia, 2007). Furthermore, even before the symptoms has officially been stated or declared, Eugene Blueler already has said that itÃ¢â¬â¢s sy mptoms are the following: 1) Ã¢â¬Å"flattened affectÃ¢â¬ ; 2) autism; 3) impaired association of ideas; and 4) ambivalence (Wikipedia, 2007). Interestingly, several years ago, schizophreniaÃ¢â¬â¢s only known cause is that it is said to be because of genetics or because it has been passed on from the first generation of the family to the succeeding ones (Wikipedia, 2007). Another extremely attention-grabbing fact with regards to the history of schizophrenia is that countless people were diagnosed to suffer from it before and that they were all annihilated in the Nazi program technically referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"Operation T-4Ã¢â¬ (Wikipedia, 2007).Moreover, the first focus of this paper is on the causes of schizophrenia whichincludes: 1) genetic; 2) environment; 3) perinatal brain development; 4) childhood and adolescent development; 5) adult brain structure; 6) neuropsychology and brain function; 7) psychosocial factors; and 8) autoimmune theory (Wikipedia, 2007). Immediately after that, the signs and symptoms including the: 1) positive symptoms; 2) negative symptoms; as well as 3) cognitive symptoms will be briefly discussed also (National.., 2007).Ã Ã Finally, treatment for schizophrenia will also be looked into (Wikipedia, 2007). Topics for this category entail: 1) medication; 2) dietary supplements; 3) neurological procedures; and 4) psychological and social interventions (Wikipedia, 2007).It is quite clear that schizophrenia affects the patients themselves, their families, aswell as, the entire society, thus, it is exceedingly important to reintroduce the causes, symptoms, as well as, treatment for schizophrenia, which this paper intends to do so.Causes, Symptoms, and TreatmentThere are several causes of schizophrenia and some of these are the following:1) Genetic Ã¢â¬â Experts claim that schizophrenia may be inherited (Wikipedia, 2007). This resulted from the research results wherein it can be deduced that there is a twenty eight percent c hance for a twin to develop schizophrenia if the other one already acquired it (Wikipedia, 2007).2) Environment Ã¢â¬â Researchers say that traumatic experiences, for instance, physical abuse during childhood causes schizophrenia (Wikipedia, 2007). Furthermore, negative treatments including, controlling attitude, aggression, lack of sympathy etc also triggers schizophrenia (Wikipedia, 2007). Moreover, stressful experiences including loss of a job, inadequacy of money, discrimination etc also leads to schizophrenia (Wikipedia, 2007).3) Perinatal brain development Ã¢â¬â It is said that if there are infections that emerged during the third trimester of pregnancy then it is possible that later schizophrenia will develop (Wikipedia, 2007). Prenatal negative experiences including psychological trauma may also trigger schizophrenia (Wikipedia, 2007).4) Childhood and adolescent development Ã¢â¬â Experts say that since schizophrenia typically develops during late adolescence and earl y adulthood, it may then be said that when the stage of childhood end, schizophrenia may already present itself (Wikipedia, 2007).5) Adult brain structure Ã¢â¬â It is said that there are certain size and structure of the regions of the brain that may cause the development of Schizophrenia (Wikipedia, 2007).6) Neuropsychology and brain function Ã¢â¬â Scientists say that functional disparities in mind activity influence the emergence of schizophrenia (Wikipedia, 2007).7) Psychosocial factors Ã¢â¬â Experts state that people who go through emotional stress, exceedingly confusing situations, depression, inferiority complex, difficulties in concentrating/listening etc are more bound to develop schizophrenia (Wikipedia, 2007).8) Autoimmune theory Ã¢â¬â It is also said that autoimmunity causes schizophrenia (Wikipedia, 2007). This is where the organism malfunctions and will not be able to identify itself causing it to go against its own cells and tissues (Wikipedia, 2007).Of cou rse, there are also a number of signs and symptoms that may be spotted to know if an individual suffers from schizophrenia and some of these are the following:1) Positive symptoms Ã¢â¬â If an individual is observed to be having delusions, hallucinations, then he may be suffering from schizophrenia (National.., 2007). In addition to that, if his or her thoughts are in extreme disorder and his or her physical movements are in disarray as well, then he or she may be diagnosed as having schizophrenia (National.., 2007).2) Negative symptoms Ã¢â¬â If a person who is not by nature lazy or is not suffering from depression and yet finds it difficult to articulate his or her emotions, find and pinpoint what will make him or her happy, and cannot make plans on his or her ownÃ then he or she may be schizophrenic (National.., 2007).3) Cognitive symptoms Ã¢â¬â If an individual have a difficulty trying to focus, encounter memoryEven though the aforementioned causes and symptoms are sca ry, it is extremelyfortunate that there are ways to manage/treat the aforementioned disease. Some of these are the following:1) Medications, which are usually antipsychotic, including dopamine system stabilizers or agonists (Wikipedia, 2007).2) Dietary supplements like omega-3 fatty acids, alpha lipoic acid, d-sarcosine, glycine, folate, vitamin A, vitamin C, as well as, vitamin E (Wikipedia, 2007).3) Neurological procedures like electroshock and psychosurgery (Wikipedia, 2007).4) Psychological and social interventions like cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive remediation therapy, music therapy, psychological education for the whole family and psychotherapy (Wikipedia, 2007).ConclusionThis paper intends to reintroduce the causes, symptoms, as well as, treatment forSchizophrenia. It has been carried out because of the fact that it affects the patients themselves, their families, and the whole of society.Furthermore, this paper is very important because it plays a large role in the reintroduction of the topics on the basic information about schizophrenia. It will not only remind individuals but will also help them familiarize themselves with the following:Ã First of all, schizophrenia is brought about by the following: 1) genetic; 2) environment; 3) perinatal brain development; 4) childhood and adolescent development; 5) adult brain structure; 6) neuropsychology and brain function; 7) psychosocial factors; and 8) autoimmune theory (Wikipedia, 2007). Secondly, the symptoms are known as: 1) positive; 2) negative; as well as 3) cognitive (National.., 2007). Finally, that it may be treated/managed through: 1) medication; 2) dietary supplements; 3) neurological procedures; and 4) psychological and social interventions (Wikipedia, 2007).On a final note, it is also good to mentioned that there are also several researches conducted that may be extremely helpful in the future. Some of these are the following:A) Acupuncture for schizophreniaDescription of Study: This particular study entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"Acupuncture for SchizophreniaÃ¢â¬ , looks into a treatment wherein extremely thin needles are placed just underneath the surface of the skin throughout the body. It seeks to provide evidence to clinicians, as well as, patients with regards to the benefits of acupuncture in schizophrenia (Rathbone et. al., 2006).Methodology: independent extraction of data/randomized controlled trialTreatment Protocol: acupuncture/electro-acupuncture/laser-acupuncture/no treatment/antipsychotic drugsFindings/Results:The researchers conclude that acupuncture can not be proposed and suggested for people suffering from schizophrenia because of inadequate substantiation (Rathbone et. al., 2006).B) Amisulpride for SchizophreniaDescription of Study:This experiment scrutinizes the selective dopamine antagonist, Amisulpride (Mota Neto et. al., 2002). It aims to assess its effects (Mota Neto et. al., 2002). It also intends to compare it with placebo, typical, as well as, at ypical antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia (Mota Neto et. al., 2002).Methodology: randomized controlled trialTreatment Protocol: amisulprideFindings/Results:Researchers conclude that Amisulpride brings about improvement in the general negative symptoms of people suffering from Schizophrenia (Mota Neto et. al., 2002). Researchers also claim that as compared with high-potency typical antipsychotics, amisulpride may offer better outcomes (Mota Neto et. al., 2002).ReferencesNational Institute of Mental Health. (2007). Schizophrenia. Retrieved April 13, 2007 fromhttp://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/schizoph.cfm#definitionMota Neto, J.I.S., Lima, M.S. Suarea, B.G.O. (2005). Amisulpride for Schizophrenia.The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, volume # 2, n.p.Rathbone, J. Xia, J. (2005). Acupuncture for Schizophrenia. The Cochrane Databaseof Systematic Reviews, volume # 1, n.p.Wikipedia. (2007). Schizophrenia. Retrieved April 13, 2007 fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizophrenia#Cau ses